Energy Proximate and Ultimate Analysis
Accurate results from proximate and ultimate analysis of coal, coke and biofuel are an important step in mining and processing operations.
Ideally, these tests should comply with accepted international standards and be conducted under the strictest laboratory controls. SGS has the equipment and the experience - backed by a global team of independent experts - to give you the results you need to ensure:
- Compliance with international standards (ASTM, ISO, AS, D)
- Optimised plant operations
- Health and safety planning
- Contractual compliance
- Adherence to emission regulations
Proximate analysis tests conducted in SGS laboratories, along with applicable standards, include:
Moisture (ASTM D3173, ISO 11722, AS1038.3)
Moisture is the water that exists in the coal at the site, time, and under the conditions it is sampled. SGS experts determine the amount of moisture in your samples by measuring the loss in mass between an as-mined sample and a sample that has been heated under controlled conditions to drive off the water that is not contained within the chemical structure of the coal.
Sulphur (ASTM D4239, ISO 351, AS1038.6)
It is important to measure the sulphur content in coal samples to evaluate the potential sulphur emissions from coal combustion, or for contract specifications purposes. SGS has the facilities and the know-how to provide you with timely accurate results.
Calorific Value (ASTM D5865, ISO 1928, AS1038.5)
The calorific value of coal or coke is the heat liberated when the solid fuel undergoes complete combustion in oxygen. In order to obtain accurate results, SGS burns your fuel sample in a bomb calorimeter and measures the total heat energy.
Volatile Matter (ASTM D3175, ISO 562, AS1038.3)
Volatile matter includes the components of coal, except for water, which are liberated at high temperature in the absence of oxygen. Volatile matter is a key health and safety concern as coals high in volatiles have an increased risk of spontaneous combustion. SGS determines the volatile matter in your coal sample by measuring the mass of volatiles before and after weight analysis under strictly controlled conditions.
Fixed Carbon (ASTM D5142, ISO 17246)
The fixed carbon content of coal is determined by subtracting the percentages of moisture, volatile matter and ash from the original mass of the coal sample: the solid combustible residue that remains after a coal has had the volatiles driven off. SGS experts conduct a fixed carbon test to estimate of the amount of coke your coal sample will yield.
SGS conducts a variety of fundamental ash analysis tests including ash elemental tests, ash fusion tests and coal ash analysis.
Ultimate Analysis Tests
Ultimate analysis tests produce more comprehensive results than the proximate analyses. SGS uses the results from ultimate analysis tests to determine the elemental composition of the coal including moisture, ash, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur, and oxygen (by difference). We determine each element through chemical analysis and express it as a percentage of the total mass of the original coal or coke sample.
SGS is a global leader in chemical analysis for the coal and coke industries. Proximate and ultimate analyses done in our state-of-the-art laboratories deliver timely, accurate and independent results from your coal, coke and biofuel samples.